ARANNET Aranjuez Magazine
History of Aranjuez (Until the XVIth Century)

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Origin of Aranjuez
The Royal Forest
The shield of Aranjuez
The Royal Place
The first palace
Centuries XVII and XVIII

Origin of Aranjuez

The Royal Palace

Aranjuez it was the name of an ancient pasture that was understanding, approximately, the lands located among the Tajo and the Sea of Ontígola, of north to south, and the Street of the King and the Bare of the Star, of this to west. In the term of the ancient pasture, were found the village of Aranz, about the gasket of the Tajo rivers and Jarama. From the times of Felipe II, the name of Aranjuez served to designate to the Place, thereinafter Royal Place and, from the reign of Fernando VI, name of the population that here was seated.

Very previously, the vega of Aranjuez presents accessions and multiple culture remains and peoples. They have been found, in the municipal term, paleolithic equipment, stone axes of the neolithic, ceramics, weapons and personal objects of the ages of the bronze and of the iron and colonizing peoples vestiges and Roman remains (house foundations, graves, registrations and coins).

The shield of Aranjuez

After the conquest, by the visigodos, of the kingdom of Toledo, are produced new accessions in the vega of Aranjuez. The Moors fortified Oreja - to 12 kilometers of Aranjuez - lifting there a castle that masters all the vega. The first documental villages news it is on Aranz in the year 1118, in a privilege granted by Alfonso VII. Thereinafter, in the era in the one which the Tajo was boundary among Moors and Christian and after the foundation of the Soldier Orders, the king Alfonso VIII concedes the Ear Castle to the Command of Santiago, in the person of his Master and founding, Rodrigo Fernández de Fuente Encalada.

The first commander of the Castle was Pedro García de Orella. That is the reason for which it figure the cross of Santiago in the shield of Aranjuez, approved by Ministers Council on 1956 February 17th.

The first palace Next Masters of Santiago, that were tending to reside in Ocaña, they were splitting the Oreja commission in other smaller. Thus it appears the commission of Alpajés, that includes the village of Aranz and the pasture of Aranjuez, rich in hunt, fishing and grasss. Table Maestral of Santiago is created in 1272, it incorporates the lands of Aranjuez, as a leisure place for the Masters. Around the end of XV century, the Master Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, sorts the construction of a House - palace, near the laughes current, in the north side than what now it is Royal Palace. This construction was demolished in 1739.
The Royal Forest When the queen Isabel I procures for her husband, the king Fernando V, the manager appointment of the Maestrazgo of the Command of Santiago, Aranjuez begins to be frequented by the kings of Castille and are accomplished reforms in the palace house and in the island of the garden, that was called Island of the Queen. In the year 1520, the Alcayde of the palace House charge relapses in D. Gonzalo de Chacón, that it accomplishes some hydraulic works and of enhancement in the Place. Three years afterwards, the pasture of Aranjuez is converted into royal property, upon forming part of Table Maestral, whose headline was the king Carlos I, that had received of the Pope Adriano VI the Master dignity of Santiago and the administration of Table Maestral to perpetuity. Carlos I make some reforms and creates the Royal Forest and House of Aranjuez, for his enjoyment in leisure and hunt. Thus, among 1534 and 1543, remained added to Aranjuez the commandings surrounding of Otos, Oreja, Aceca and Alpajés, as well as the properties of the alcayde of the palace house of Aranjuez, pastures and peoples lands and noble. With these aggregations remained configured, in what is fundamental, the vast territory of the Royal Forest of Aranjuez and its characteristic way, continuing the Tajo and Jarama courses.
The Royal Place Upon Felipe II arriving to the throne, the Royal Forest grew in reputation and lands, being designated Royal Place and being forbidden the accession, as exclusive property of the monarch. They are built millraces by the Jarama, planted of trees are accomplished and there were put on numerous development huertas. It was lifted a new palace, antecedent of the current, in 1561, conducted by Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera. They are dictated the first Ordinances of Government of the Royal Place and are lifted several buildings, that yet are preserved (to see main monuments and places of interest). They were planted large avenues of chopos, black elms, trees, jasmines and grapevines. The Garden of the Island was reformed and the flower hedges and the statues and sources were expanded. Aranjuez was the natural wealth model and in 1551 is created the first botanical garden of the world and a distiller of smell and medicinal water.

©1998 Arannet

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